Acute decompensated heart failure, pulmonary congestion, left ventricular ejection fraction
Demographics and concomitant diseases of acute decompensated heart failure.
Clinical Presentation of Patients Hospitalized with Heart Failure.
Diagnostic value of clinical markers of congestion.
The most useful symptoms and signs
Example of an examination bed
Examples of examination light source
Measurement of jugular venous pressure.
A study by Fonarow26 which demonstrated that if PCWP waslower than 16 mm Hg at discharge, the mortality at 24 months was better than for those whose PCWP was higher than 16 mm Hg. There is no mortality difference between the 2 groups that have cardiac index higher or lower than 2.6 L/min/M2
A study by Lucas C, et al.27 which shows the linear relationship between the degree of congestion and survival rate at 18 months: the less congestion, the better survival rate.
List of inotrope studies over the past 20 years28-44
Data of inotrope utilization frequency continue to be high
Results of the most recent randomized control trial for milrinone, a phosphodiesterest inhibitor inotrope in ADHF. All the end points in this figure showed deleterious effects from milrinone when compared with a placebo. These end points included treatment failure from adverse events, sustained hypotension, acute myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and mortality; 4 out of 6 had statistic significance.30
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