To study the proportion of smokers in people with type 2 diabetes and to compare the glycemic control and diabetic complications of smokers, former smokers and non-smokers.
The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study of patients with type 2 diabetes aged 15 years old and over who received services at the Diabetes Clinic, Outpatient Department of Internal Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital from April 2014 to January 2015.
Of 313 participants, 2.6% of type 2 diabetes subjects were smokers, and 16.3% of participants were former smokers. All smokers were males. The BMIs of the non-smokers and the former smokers were higher than that of the smokers (26.8, 27.1 and 25.4 kg/m2, respectively). Moreover, former smokers had a higher prevalence of being overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2) more than the smokers and non-smokers (74.5%, 62.5% and 57.1%, respectively). The average levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the smokers (mean was 177.0 and 192.3 mg/dL, respectively) were higher than those of non-smokers (mean was 147.3 and 181.0, respectively) and former smokers (mean was 142.6 and 165.1, respectively). Moreover, it was shown that the average of HbA1c in all groups were not different. However, the smokers were more likely to have uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 7%) more than the non-smokers and the former smokers (75.0% of the smokers, 55.9% of the non-smokers and 51.0% the former smokers). Regarding diabetes complications, including retinopathy neuropathy and nephropathy, it was found that the smokers and the former smokers had a higher percentage of complications than the nonsmokers.
People with diabetes who smoked were more likely to have poor glycemic control and tended to have more complications than non-smokers. Therefore, in diabetic care, smoking cessation is important for glycemic control and limiting the development of diabetic complications. It is suggested that integrated care for the patients with diabetes should be supported. That is, clear guidelines regarding the diet control, balanced exercises and the assessment of risk behaviors, especially smoking, are recommended.
smoking, type 2 diabetes, diabetic complications