Electronic ISSN 2287-0237

VOLUME

PREVALENCE OF CAROTID ARTERY DISEASE AND RISK FACTORS IN ASYMPTOMATIC THAI POPULATION USING CAROTID DUPLEX ULTRASONOGRAPHY AT THE CHECK-UP CLINIC, HEALTH PROMOTION CENTER AT BANGKOK HOSPITAL

SEPTEMBER 2014 - VOL.8 | ORIGINAL ARTICLE
OBJECTIVE:

To examine the prevalence of carotid artery disease  and to determine risk factors for carotid duplex abnormalities among asymptomatic Thai subjects. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The cross-sectional observation  study was conducted in a sample of patients (Thai population) who  took an annual health check-up at the Bangkok Medical Center  (BMC) over a 10 month period from June 1, 2011 to March 31, 2012.  A total of 2,105 subjects were enrolled and underwent a carotid  duplex examination using the standard procedure. The results from  the carotid duplex ultrasonography and risk factors that contribute  to carotid artery abnormalities were recorded and analyzed using  a multiple logistic regression method and a prevalence rate ratio.

RESULTS:

The study enrolled 2,105 Thai participants aged 25-79 years old with a mean of age of 54 ± 10.4 years. The population was equally divided by gender, and 44% of subjects were current smokers and 25% of the patients were overweight. Approximately  30.5% of participants had hypertension (HT) and 9.3% had  diabetes mellitus (DM). Abnormal carotid duplex examinations were found in 912 cases accounting for 45.7% of the participants.

Atheromatous plaque and thickening of the intimal media  thickness was observed in 784 cases (37.2%) and 314 cases (14.9%)  respectively. Internal carotid stenosis results were detected  including 11 mild, 9 moderate and 2 severe stenotic cases;  however, no carotid occlusion reported. Underlying HT and DM were related to abnormal duplex results. Factors including  increasing age (p < 0.001), male gender (odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.0), and HT associated (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8-3.1) were associated with carotid atherosclerotic disease  observed by the duplex examination.

CONCLUSION:

The prevalence of atherosclerotic carotid arteries detected by duplex ultrasonography was approximately 45% among asymptomatic Thai population who took an annual health check at the BMC. Atheromatous plaque is the most common finding and  significant (moderate to severe) internal carotid artery (ICA)  stenosis was observed in 0.5% of participants. Factors including age, male gender, DM, and HT were associated with atherosclerotic carotid disease. High fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and low-density  lipoprotein (LDL) were also related to abnormal carotid duplex  results. The carotid duplex examination provided health information  to the participants to help control risk factors and to raise awareness  of cerebrovascular disease. 

Keywords:

carotid artery disease, asymptomatic, carotid duplex ultrasonography, prevalence

MEDIA
Table 1:
Degrees of Carotid Artery Stenosis.16
Table 2:
Patient characteristics.
Table 3:
Correlation between underlying diseases and carotid results.
Table 4:
Classification of the severity of abnormal carotid artery. (n = 2,105)
Table 5:
Correlation between blood pressure (BP), Lab results and carotid duplex results.
Table 6:
Factors related to the carotid duplex results analyzed by multiple logistic regressions.
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