This quasi-experimental research aimed to examine the effects of a diet control program using food exchange on knowledge, food consumption behaviors, glycemic control and nutrient intake among persons with type 2 diabetes in sub-district health promoting hospitals.
The sample of 44 persons with type 2 diabetes were divided by purposive sampling into two groups, experimental (n=22) and comparison (n=22). The experimental group participated in a 12-week diet control program using food exchange based on the Health Belief Model concept. The program consisted of one education session for two hours using a video, a food exchange pamphlet, a plate model to enhance subjects’ understanding, meal planning, and three home visit followups. Data were collected via four instruments: a demographic data questionnaire, health information records, a food consumption behavior of persons with diabetes questionnaire, a knowledge test and 24 hours food record. The data was analyzed through descriptive statistics, Wilcoxson Signed Rank test and Mann-Whitney U test.
After receiving the program, the experimental group had a significantly higher food consumption behavior score when compared to before the program (p=0.005) and scored significantly higher than the comparison group (p <0.001). Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of the experimental group showed a significant reduction in more than the control group (p=0.002) whereas in knowledge score and in fasting blood sugar (FBS) there was no significant difference.
It is recommended that nurses can use this program to effectively modify type 2 diabetic patients’ health behavior in diet control leading to glycemic control.
diet control program, food consumption behavior, glycemic control