This experimental research design was aimed at determining the effects of an Arm Swing Exercise (ASE) Program on blood sugar levels (HbA1c), nutritional status and perceived self-efficacy for exercise in persons with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Fifty-eight participants who met the research criteria were randomly selected into two groups: an experimental group receiving the ASE Program and a control group receiving routine nursing care. Data from demographic characteristics, perceived self-efficacy for exercise, HbA1c and nutritional status were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANCOVA.
The experimental group had significantly lower HbA1c, higher skeletal muscle and perceived self-efficacy for exercise compared to before the Program (p < 0.01; p < 0.05; p < 0.001, respectively); and significantly decreased waist circumference and increase perceived self-efficacy for exercise compared to the control group (p < 0.01; p < 0.001, respectively).
The ASE program is effective and efficient in controlling HbA1c and improving nutritional status.
arm swing exercise program, blood sugar level, nutritional status, perceived self-efficacy for exercise, persons with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus
Associate Professor Sangthong Terathongkum, RN, Ph.D (Nursing), ACNP Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.
Received: June 5, 2018
Revision received: June 7, 2018
Accepted after revision: July 11, 2018
BKK Med J 2018;14(2): 34-39.